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Dr Andrew Firth

Dr Andrew Firth

Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow and University Lecturer

Division of Virology



- Bioinformatics

- RNA virus comparative genomics

- Virus gene expression mechanisms / translational control

- Novel virus discovery

- Ribosome profiling

- RNA structure and function

Department of Pathology
Division of Virology
University of Cambridge
Tennis Court Road
Cambridge CB2 1QP
United Kingdom

Office Phone: +44 (0)1223 762652

Research themes




Research Interests

RNA viruses have compact multifunctional genomes. During the course of infection, the genome or its derivatives must direct translation of virus proteins, genome replication and genome packaging. To realize these multiple roles, RNA virus genomes commonly have many overlapping coding and non-coding functional elements. Overlapping functional elements often escape detection because it can be difficult to disentangle the multiple roles of the constituent nucleotides via, for example, mutational analysis. Systematic synonymous-site mutational analyses are resource-intensive and can miss functional elements that are only required in vivo. Meanwhile, high-throughput techniques such as SHAPE and ribosome profiling often have difficulty distinguishing functional elements from incidental features. Comparative computational analyses offer a way forward. By studying patterns of nucleotide substitutions across sequence alignments, it is often possible to predict novel functional elements and gain insight into their function. We are using comparative genomic approaches to identify new features in both plant and animal RNA viruses, and guide follow-up experimental analyses.

Virus comparative genomics database.

Firth Research 1
Fig 1. Above - map of the poliovirus genome showing the polyprotein-encoding sequence (blue), UTRs (black), and known functional RNA elements (Goodfellow et al 2000, PMID 10775595; Liu et al 2009, PMID 19781674; Song et al 2012, PMID 22886087; Burrill et al 2013, PMID 23966409). Below - conservation at synonymous sites in an alignment of 50 enterovirus sequences: synonymous substitution rate relative to the genome average (brown) and statistical significance (red). All known functional RNA elements embedded within the polyprotein-encoding sequence are easily detected, besides a few additional elements in the region encoding 3D.

One particularly powerful approach is to analyze the rate of nucleotide substitutions at synonymous sites in alignments of related virus coding sequences (Firth et al 2014, PMID 25326325). A statistically significant reduction in variability at synonymous sites is indicative of an overlapping functional element such as an overlapping gene or a functional RNA structure. Fig. 1 shows an example of our own synonymous site conservation algorithm applied to an alignment of enterovirus sequences. We are applying this and other comparative genomic techniques to all sequenced RNA viruses (besides some cellular organisms) to identify novel features, both coding and non-coding. By mapping all the functional elements in the genomes of economically and medically important RNA viruses, we hope to provide a better platform on which to build future research.

Many 'hidden' genes are translated via non-canonical mechanisms such as programmed ribosomal frameshifting, non-AUG initiation, and internal ribosome entry sites (IRESes).

Firth Research 2
Fig 2. Influenza A virus genome map and synonymous site conservation analysis. Conservation peaks correspond to terminal packaging signals, splicing enhancer sequences, and the PA/X and NS1/NEP dual-coding region

Since viruses use the host cell's ribosomes and many other components of the protein synthesis machinery, these unusual translation mechanisms are potentially also relevant to cellular gene expression and genome annotation. Indeed programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, stop codon readthrough and internal ribosome entry - now known to be important for the expression of certain cellular genes - were all first identified and studied in viruses. We are interested in finding new non-canonical translation mechanisms (e.g. -2 frameshifting; Fang et al 2012, PMID 23043113) in viruses, characterizing mechanisms and associated sequence motifs, and then searching for related instances in cellular genes.


Research Supervision

Prospective students should have a background in bioinformatics / computational biology.

Funding for our research comes from the Wellcome Trust and the European Research Council.

  • Research Associates (experimental virology): Dr Nina Lukhovitskaya, Dr Hazel Stewart, Dr Valeria Lulla
  • Research Associate (bioinformatics): Dr Adam Dinan
  • Chief Research Laboratory Technician: Susanne Bell
  • Graduate Students (bioinformatics): Krzysztof Franaszek, Ingrida Olendraite, Charlotte Tumescheit
  • Visiting Scientist: Dr Yanhua Li


Key Publications

  • Irigoyen N*, Firth AE*, Jones JD, Chung BY, Siddell SG, Brierley I* (2016) High-resolution analysis of coronavirus gene expression by RNA sequencing and ribosome profiling. PLoS Pathog 12:e1005473.
  • Olspert A, Chung BY, Atkins JF, Carr JP, Firth AE* (2015) Transcriptional slippage in the positive-sense RNA virus family PotyviridaeEMBO Rep 16:995-1004.
  • Finch LK, Ling R, Napthine S, Olspert A, Michiels T, Lardinois C, Bell S, Loughran G, Brierley I, Firth AE* (2015) Characterization of ribosomal frameshifting in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J Virol 89:8580-8589.
  • Smirnova E, Firth AE*, Miller WA*, Scheidecker D, Brault V, Reinbold C, Rakotondrafara AM, Chung BY, Ziegler-Graff V* (2015) Discovery of a small non-AUG-initiated ORF in poleroviruses and luteoviruses that is required for long-distance movement. PLoS Pathog 11:e1004868. 
  • Firth AE* (2014) Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses. Nucleic Acids Res 42:12425-12439. 
  • Fang Y*, Treffers EE, Li Y, Tas A, Sun Z, van der Meer Y, de Ru AH, van Veelen PA, Atkins JF, Snijder EJ*, Firth AE* (2012) Efficient -2 frameshifting by mammalian ribosomes to synthesize an additional arterivirus protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E2920-E2928.
  • Jagger BW, Wise HM, Kash JC, Walters KA, Wills NM, Xiao YL, Dunfee RL, Schwartzman LM, Ozinsky A, Bell GL, Dalton RM, Lo A, Efstathiou S, Atkins JF, Firth AE*, Taubenberger JK*, Digard P* (2012) An overlapping protein-coding region in influenza A virus segment 3 modulates the host response. Science 337:199-204.
  • Loughran G, Firth AE*, Atkins JF (2011) Ribosomal frameshifting into an overlapping gene in the 2B-encoding region of the cardiovirus genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA108:E1111-E1119.
  • Chung BY, Miller WA, Atkins JF, Firth AE* (2008) An overlapping essential gene in the PotyviridaeProc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:5897-5902.